Volume 2, No.2 June 2012


Entrepreneurial Universities in Victoria: An Analysis of University-Based Entrepreneurship Ecosystems
Howard Frederick
A State of Victoria, Australia, report asserts that concept of the entrepreneurial university in Australia has “never been taken seriously” and had been “found to be lacking in validity” (State of Victoria, 2010, p. 83).  This is a curious statement given that dozens of eminent research universities outside of Australia have adopted this strategic approach.  This article reviews of the field of ‘university entrepreneurship’ with emphasis on the concept of ‘Triple Helix’.  It takes as its case study the nine universities in the State of Victoria.  In what sense are Victorian universities entrepreneurial?  What are the key facilitators and barriers to becoming a more entrepreneurial university?  Which elements of an ‘entrepreneurship ecosystems’ do these universities possess?  The basic approach of the study is hermeneutic in that it relies on the interpretation of sense-making, the process by which people give meaning to experience.  We take as our case study twenty-seven respondents in nine universities within the State of Victoria, Australia.  The literature review led to the choice of three instruments previously used and validated.  My findings show that Victorian universities, if they identify with the concept of entrepreneurial university at all, believe that such a university is one that adopts commercial methods and values and one that engages in commercialisation of research. There is little knowledge of the other schools of thought such as corporate entrepreneurship, Triple Helix, or entrepreneurial ecosystem approaches.  The gap between world best-practice and Victorian practice is not being addressed.
Keywords: entrepreneurial university, entrepreneurship ecosystems, barriers, commercialisation, corporate entrepreneurship
Educating Tomorrow’s Authentic Global Leaders Synthesis of Engineering, Management and Liberal Arts
Vijay K. Arora
A quality global organization, of the people, by the people, and for the people, accentuates the design, nurturing, modification, and extension of the behavioural and emotional traits of all those in its circle of influence.  This is only possible by synthesis of text and context by taking into account the shifting paradigms in global practices and varying societal needs.  An engineering paradigm emphasizing ongoing process of holistic thinking, analytical character of scientific management, and implementation character of behavioural sciences is described.  Embedded higher-order life, professional, and technical skills in training professionals for a global organization are enumerated.  The professionals so trained distinguish logic from tradition, tradition from prejudice, prejudice from common sense, and common sense from nonsense.  The paper thrashes out making and renewal of a global organization comprising quality professionals with life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness for the people it serves, no matter what the ethnic make up and location in the world.  A course on Quantitative Analysis and Programming Methods, following this paradigm, in educating professionals for a global organization, is described.
Keywords: behavioural engineering, techno-entrepreneurship, outcomes, theory of constraints 
The Practice of Islamic Work Values in the Organization: A Study among Female and Male Employees
Mastura Ab. Wahab
The study investigates the role of gender as a moderator in the Islamic work values and job performance relationship. The study uses a sample of 239 employees from six top organizations in Malaysia. Using a multi-group analysis model of SEM, the results indicate that gender moderates the relationship between Islamic work values and job performance. Overall, females were found to show a slightly higher work performance than males. The result also reveals that the higher work performance shown by female employees was due to their stronger practices of responsibility’s (mas’uliyyah) work value. Among male employees, perfectionism’s (itqan) work value received the strongest influence leading to their performance. These two Islamic work values are considered fundamental for the successful of any organization. The implication, limitation and lines of future research are also discussed in this study.
Keywords: Islamic work values, gender, job performance
Is There Life After Facebook? The Cyber Gulag Revisited & Debate Reloaded (On the Arab ‘Spring’, London ‘Summer' And Wall Street ‘Autumn’ – An Instructive Lesson For Asia/SEA)
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
Misled by a quick triumphalism of the social-media, the international news agencies have confused the two: revolt and revolution. The past unrests started as a social, not political public revolt. Through the pain of sobriety, the protesters are learning that neither globalization nor the McFB way of life is a shortcut to development; that free trade is not a virtue, but an instrument; that liberalism is not a state of mind but a well-doctrinated ideology, and finally that the social media networks are only a communication tool, not a replacement for independent critical thinking or for the collapsed cross-generational contract. Londoners, Greeks and New Yorkers are experiencing about the same. How does the Arab ‘Spring’ correlate with the European Euro-frost, and American OWS unrest? For almost ten years now, the youth in Europe is repeatedly sending us a powerful message on the perceived collapse of the social contract. The cross-generational contract should be neither neglected, nor built on the over-consumerist, disheartened and egotistic McFB– way of life. Equally alienating and dangerously inflammatory is the collision of the entering youth generation (if/when deprived of the opportunity and handed over to a lame hope) – through a religious or political radicalization. In this word spanned between the Kantian hopes and Hobbesian fears, thus the final question: Is there life after FB? If so, how can we register our future claims?
Keywords: Middle East/MENA, Social Media Networks, Integrity and Monetization, Popular movies, Dostoyevsky, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Plato, Dante, Goethe, Fromm, Huxley, Tesla, Sagan, Cross-generational contract, London riots, Anti-politics, Europe, Radicals and Islamists, Right-wing populist parties, Austerity, Occupy Wall Street, Euro-Med, Southeast Asia, Prosperity, Solidarity, Security, Hegel and Freedom, Meaning, Common Cause
Using Theory of Reasoned Action to Explain Taxpayer Intention to Comply with Goods and Services Tax
Zainol Bidin
The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of taxpayers towards the implementation of goods and services tax (GST) in Malaysia. Theory of reasoned action proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) was used as the underlying theory for the study. One hundred and three respondents in Kedah and Perlis participated in the study. Multiple regressions were employed to examine the relationship between attitude and subjective norm on behavioural intention to comply with GST. Results show that attitude and subjective norms variables were significantly and positively related to behavioural intention. All these independent variables were able to explain 28% variance in behavioural intention to comply with GST. Implications and recommendations for policy makers are discussed.
Keyword: attitude, subjective norm, intention, Good and Service Tax
Export Financing Practices in Bangladesh: An Appraisal of some Selected Commercial Banks
Mohammad Nesarul Karim and Mohammad Hasmat Ali
Export sector in Bangladesh had been considering being a pivotal sector of national economy even prior to its major policy changes of early eighties. But export suffers from the lack of proper support of financial requirement. The problem of the study, therefore, is to make a comprehensive analysis of present position of export financing, evaluation of different schemes, role of financial institutions in advancing export credit along with problems and difficulties of both financier and recipient of finance in Bangladesh. The focal theme of the study is to know how and to what extent the existing system is supportive of financial needs of the export business, positive impact of export on economy is a precondition of institutional arrangement of export financing being successful. The main objective of the study is to highlight the export financing practices, performance, problems and prospects in Bangladesh. It intends to focus all important aspects of export financing programmes of the commercial banks. Banks opinion has been sought in a 5-point interval scale structured with seventeen such perceived consequences of a separate institution. The study reveals that there is no significant different in the perception of different categories of bank relating to the number of issues considered as problem. Integrity, solvency and performance history of exporters are commonly considered by all banks. There is no statistically significant difference between categories of banks regarding the numbers of factors considered in this respect. It is found that there is a very little agreement among the banks on possible undesirable practices and their consequences.
Keyword: exporter, export finance, commercial bank, Kappa Analysis
Developing Natural Products and New Value Chains in Kelantan while Maintaining Cultural Integrity: What, How and for Whom
Mohd. Murray Hunter
Kelantan, situated in the Far North-East of the Malay Peninsula has been built upon the proud traditions of a rural based social-economy. The Malaysian state of Kelantan has been relatively independent, without direct foreign occupation and control since the early 1400s, except for short periods by the Siamese and Japanese. Malay tradition and culture is relatively undiluted in Kelantan in contrast with the other states in Malaysia. Maintaining cultural integrity and traditions is something important to both the social and spiritual identities and aspirations of the Kelantanese, and this factor must be considered in any potential development in the state. Therefore the development of natural products in Kelantan must be approached differently from the rest of Malaysia due to the above cultural factors and aspirations of local people. Ignoring international opportunities for natural based products would disadvantage Kelantan, but at the same time ushering in large multinational companies to exploit Kelantan’s natural resources such as land would have high social costs from the Kelantanese perspective. This implies that the development of natural products should be on a small enterprise scale rather than large enterprise scale, the new industries do not drastically change cultural conditions, and this be achieved with limited resources and more upon local exploration and cooperation, rather than outside interference. Consequently business models based on cooperative labour and shura decision systems, in decentralized production units would be a preferred option. Marketing paradigms need to be developed that carry Kelantanese culture as a theme specializing in particular niche markets need to accompany these new production models. The potential for natural product development in Kelantan along the business models outlined above include herbs, essential oils, nutraceuticals, cosmoceuticals, natural dyes, Islamic medicines, food ingredients, traditional products, and some biotechnology based products including organic agricultural chemicals, all with Toyyib/Halal integrity can be developed and commercialized with specialized value chains based on low resource endowments. These products have specific markets nationally, regionally, and internationally through new supply chains developing across the world including organic, Fair-trade, and Halal markets.This paper will discuss the above issues, canvass what products can be developed, how they can be developed and new value chains created, with a low resource endowment on the part of local entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Kelantan, entrepreneur, development, culture, product
Laleng Indigenous Community of Sylhet: Changing Pattern in Political Organization
Md. Bayezid Alam and Md. Shahabul Haque
The Laleng, a little known and small decaying indigenous community living at Sylhet region in Bangladesh, had an own traditional political organization. In the changed condition, this system is not existed in its original standpoint. By using both qualitative and quantitative data generated from primary as well as secondary sources this ethno-political study explores the Laleng political organization focusing on its changing pattern. It founds that Laleng society has suffered the consequence of contact with the large-scale Bengali societies. Although Laleng society is still ruled by own political systems, but these systems are not so effective today. They are not able to maintain their traditional political organization unaltered by inside and outside influences. The findings of the present study would encourage other researchers to carry out further research on the political organization of indigenous community.
Keywords: The Laleng, political organization, indigenous community
Knowledge Management Strategy of a Law Firm
Md. Abdul Jalil
We all know that knowledge is a crucial need in all aspects of our lives especially in effectual business management. To succeed in the business it is vital to survive in competition with similar competitors in the market. To effectively complete with other competitors in the market, we need knowledge and innovation capacity. Now acquiring or capturing knowledge is not all; the most focal point is that the acquired knowledge must be managed properly to ensure stable and continuous growth in the business organization. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the knowledge management strategy embarked on by a law firm named ‘Dr. Kabir and Associates’. Descriptive and analytical research methodology has been applied in this research project. Interview has also been taken from the senior lawyers of the law firm and the gist of the interview has been used in writing the paper.
Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, knowledge workers, knowledge repository, sustainable knowledge development
Etika Dalam Perniagaan dan Pencarian Menuju Integriti (Ethics in Business and Quest for Integrity)
Mohd Mizan Aslam
Perniagaan secara umumnya menurut perspektif Barat adalah menggabungkan tiga aspek penting iaitu yang pertamanya ialah tujuan - kenapa institusi atau organisasi perniagaan itu wujud, kedua strategi dan yang ketiganya ialah nilai dan etika kerja. Etika perniagaan bolehlah ditakrifkan sebagai satu set peraturan yang mengandungi nilai-nilai, prinsip dan 'standard' yang memandu manusia berkelakuan dalam dunia perniagaan (Ferrel, Thorne, Ferrel 2010). Manakala nilai pula digunakan sebagai alat untuk menggesa manusia mengamalkan norma-norma yang diterima masyarakat umum seperti integriti, akauntabiliti dan jujur (Ferrel, Thorne, Ferrel 2010). Persoalan ‘keuntungan’ adalah perkara pokok dalam perniagaan. Bukan sahaja Barat, malah Islam sendiri pun meletakkan keuntungan sebagai salah satu  perkara yang perlu dititikberatkan dalam perniagaan. “Siapa yang berniaga inginkan kerugian”, sudah lumrah manusia melakukan sesuatu dengan niat mencapai matlamat yang baik, maka dalam konteks perniagaan, keuntungan adalah objektif yang seharusnya dicapai. Tetapi sebenarnya perniagaan tidak seharusnya ditetapkan hanya untuk mendapatkan keuntungan semata-mata, tetapi ianya juga mestilah dibina demi memenuhi tanggungjawab sosial. Maka, artikel ini akan mengupas persoalan berkaitan etika dalam perniagaan, sejarah kelahirannya, kepentingan etika dalam perniagaan dan isu-isu yang menyelubungi etika perniagaan untuk diambil iktibar oleh semua pihak dalam mencapai ekosistem peniagaan yang berteraskan integriti secara total.