Volume 1 Issue 2 June 2011


Management Control in Multinational Firms: Future Research Directions
Zarifah Abdullah and Siti Nabiha Abdul Khalid 
Issue of control in the multinational companies has been very much debated by the scholars in the area of international business. The changes in global competitive environment have lead to changes in the headquarters-subsidiary relationship. Control has been typified less by chain of command, and more by mutual interdependence, and learning. Thus, the issue of control in multinational firms and the future research direction in this area are discussed in this paper. In so doing, the types and forms of prevailing multinational firms and the forms of control are elaborated. The processes of transfers of management practices especially that of management control practices are also discussed in terms the factors influencing the transfer process, the transfer mechanism, and the effects of transfer.
Keywordsmanagement control, multinational firm, issue of control, global competitive environment.
Mid-life Crisis, Transition and the Propensity to Embark Upon Entrepreneurship
Murray Hunter 
This paper looks at mid-life crisis and transformation. According to Erikson, people go through life and often find regret, remorse, and depression about their achievement and existence in life. The potential for transformation occurs when people evaluate their self concept and find disappointment with what they see. People cope with this disappointment by living out the fantasies and typologies defined and described by O’Conner as the Farmer, the Nurseryman, the helper, the writer, and the drop-out. Finally this paper hypothesizes that mid-life crisis is not confined to one period of life and this transformation can occur during any period of life.
Impact of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance
Zahid Zamir
Knowledge Management focuses on organizing and making available important knowledge, wherever and whenever it is needed. The field of Knowledge Management is of growing interest in today’s business and academic world. As society enters into the knowledge based-economy, effective knowledge management is essential for organization to stay competitive. The purpose of this study is to conduct a thorough literature review on the impact of Knowledge management on the overall performance of an organization and thereby finding the knowledge and ideas that have already been established on this topic and what their strengths and weaknesses are. This study reviewed the literature as extensively and efficiently as possible and reviewed them critically to explore or highlight further research avenues/ questions for future research. Although based on our literature review, none of the research findings demonstrate the direct relationship between knowledge management practices and its impact on financial performance of an organization, research findings however, prove that knowledge management impacts organizational performance which in turn impacts financial performance of an organization.
Keywords: Knowledge management, Organizational performance, knowledge management practices. 
Issues of Capacity-Building and Good Governance: A Case of Bangladesh
Md. Masud Sarker and Md. Bayezid Alam
This study is based on analytical work focuses on the issue of capacity building within a governance context in Bangladesh. Secondary materials have been extensively used, interpreted and reinterpreted to substantiate the arguments. It reviews the capacity deficits in Bangladesh, identifies the capacity gaps in institutions and sectors of governance and provides recommendations for filling those capacity gaps based on the experiences. This paper shows that the high quality of good governance and high level of capacity are positively correlated with each other.
Keywords: Good Governance, Capacity, Bangladesh, high quality of governance, high level of capacity.
The Impact of Green Innovation on Top Management Leadership Attributes
Noormaizatul Akmar Ishak and Hartini Ahmad
The main reason businesses need to innovate is due to its necessity to sustain and survive, and not for the matter of how brilliant and visionary the leaders of the organization are. Innovation has known for its very significant role in the organization progression and growth. Innovation can happen in the products, processes, and services being embark by organizations to make more profit by reducing operational cost and making processes more efficient. The concern over the environment all around the world has encouraged innovation to be more tailored to the “green”. “Green” is a name that being associated with anything or any action that has impact to the environment such as green building, green government and green innovation. This paper will discuss the impact of green innovation to the top management leadership attributes in the Government-linked Companies (GLCs) in Malaysia. The leadership must be sensitive and understand the green demand and situational in the Malaysia and around the world with respect to the industries that these GLCs are operated. This is where the top management leadership attributes will be justified to fit the green innovation implementation. This constructive research is a qualitative multicases study. Data collection is done via interviews, focus group discussion and document analysis. The result will be analyzed to see the themes emerge from the data before the analysis being interpreted.
Keywords: green innovation, sustainability, top management leadership attributes.
Training and Employment for a Sustainable Hospitality and Tourism in Malaysia
Au Yong Hui Nee
Hospitality and tourism is one of Malaysia's main foreign exchange earners that generates revenues and contributes to employment. The dynamism of a sustainable hospitality and tourism industry demands highly creative experts to lift the industry in Malaysia to a higher level. The importance of human resource development to the economic viability of Malaysian hospitality and tourism is highlighted. There should be no presumption that training will lead to reduced profits. This paper examines the employment level in hospitality and tourism in Malaysia, and assesses the link between training and employment in a sustainable hospitality and tourism. Companies that invest in human resources are expected to maintain their competitive edge in the hospitality and tourism market. The paper will first describe the methodology approach then present a brief review about hospitality and tourism employment. This paper analyses the relationship between hospitality and tourism training and employment, and finally, presents a conclusion with proposal for the development and implementation of hospitality and tourism training policy and outlines strategies for further research.
Keywords: Education, Employment, Hospitality, Sustainable, Training, Tourism and Policy.
Role of Manufacturing Export in Industrial Development of Bangladesh: An Analysis under Production Function Frame Work
Nesarul Karim
Government of Bangladesh has started liberalizing foreign trade and deregulating the economy as an officially declared policy since early 80’s. The policy of import-substitution has been replaced by the strategy of export-led growth. At present export occupies the focal position in reformulated development strategy of Bangladesh. This paper investigates the relationship between growth of manufacturing export and industrial development in Bangladesh by applying production function frame work.   Empirical findings on these regards have led to mixed conclusion.
Keywords: Government of Bangladesh, Primary Export, Manufacturing Export, Industrial Development.
Perceptions on Training Functions Practised in Hotels in Penang
Azlita Abdul Jalil, Azlini Hassan, Nur Syuhadah Kamaruddin and Atikah Nor Johari.
Training functions are widely needed and known for its importance in organisations all over the world. Top management needs to be committed to training functions and development activities. This is because top management plays critical role in the success or failure of any training functions. Unfortunately, in Malaysia, it is not given sufficient focus yet as it is assumed to be costly and a waste of time, but in hotel industry, training is needed very much as it involves the staff skills and performance. This study examined the background characteristics of selected hotels in Penang and the contributing factors of the improper practice of training functions in hotels.
Keywords: Training, perception on training function, training practised, hotel in Penang.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) and Effective Safety Management Practices
Khoo Teng Hong, Lilis Surienty and Daisy Kee Mui Hung
Occupational safety and health (OSH) is an issue inseparable from most workplace in Malaysia particularly high-risk industries such as manufacturing and construction. Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) in Malaysia is in dire needs to implement OSH properly as Che Man (2010) estimated that around 80% of workplace accidents that occurred are accounted to SME. More attention and assistances must be extended to SME to help them in the implementation of OSH as their apparent lack of financial resources and expertise hamper their ability to effectively implement OSH. SME can rely on several management practices such as safety training, employee participation, safety rules, and supervisory support in order to make their workplace safer for employees to work in. A review of literature on the four management practices and a brief description on the OSH scenario as well as SME in Malaysia are discussed. SME should make use of the 4 management practices as they were found to be effective in other settings.
Keywords: Occupational safety and health, management practices, SME, safety management practices.
Kriteria Usahawan Berjaya: Satu Perbincangan Dari Perspektif Islam
Shuhairimi Abdullah
Usahawan berjaya menurut kerangka mu`amalah Islam ialah individu yang memakmur dan memanfaatkan setiap anugerah Allah untuk manfaat manusia sejagat. Pada asasnya, Islam memberi kebebasan kepada umatnya untuk bergerak secara dinamis memperkasakan pelbagai bidang keperluan manusia sebagaimana yang dituntut oleh syara`. Ini kerana, dalam pemahaman Islam, usahawan dikonotasikan sebagai pemegang amanah yang bertangungjawab sebagai khalifah dan hamba Allah mengurus dan mentadbir khazanah alam untuk kemaslahatan umat manusia amnya. Justeru itu, dalam disiplin keusahawanan Islam didapati wujudnya kriteria-kriteria tertentu yang menjadi indikasi asas untuk menilai usahawan berjaya. Pada dasarnya, kriteria-kriteria penilaian usahawan berjaya yang digariskan dalam artikel ini digarap berdasarkan kepada petunjuk al-Qur’an dan al-Sunnah serta perbincangan para ulama`. Secara alternatifnya, kriteria-kriteria penilaian ini boleh dijadikan panduan kepada usahawan muslim untuk mengukur kejayaan mereka dari sudut kaca mata mu`amalah Islam. Natijahnya, apabila kriteria-kriteria ini dipenuhi oleh usahawan secara tidak langsung ia akan melahirkan usahawan berjaya yang bersifat holistik dan diprojekkan untuk memenuhi kelestarian hasanah di dunia dan akhirat.
Katakunci: Usahawan berjaya, perspektif Islam,al-Falah,nilai-nilai murni. 
Asian Economic Crisis and the Role of IMF: An Appraisal
Md. Delwar H. Mazumder
The financial crisis, which was erupted in Asia through the collapse of the Thai Bath in July 1997, led to sharp declines in the currencies, stock markets and other assets prices of a member of Asian countries. This crisis threatened those countries financial systems and disrupted their real economics, with large contractions in activity that created a human crisis alongside the financial one. Moreover, this financial precipitated deep recessions in the “tiger economies”, resulting in a sharp drop of living standards together with rising unemployment and social dislocation. Not in the region, rather the crisis has put pressure on emerging markets outside the region; contributed to virulent contagion and volatility in international financial markets. International Monetary Fund (IMF) came to the rescue. Some countries adopted IMF policies while others did not. Quite interestingly though countries like Malaysia that did not take any loan from IMF recovered at faster pace than IMF loan receiving countries. This posed a blatant challenge towards the vitality and viability of IMF structural programs not only in East Asia but also in other parts of the world. In light of that challenge, this paper analyzes the root causes of the Asian crisis and the role of IMF in tackling the crisis. It does a comparative analysis between IMF loan recipient countries like Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, and non-recipient country Malaysia in order to know whether IMF policies helped or hindered economic recovery.