Volume 6, No. 2 June 2016


Green Marketing Strategy to Enhance Corporate Image: Case Study in UMW Toyota Motor Sdn Bhd
Boon Cheong Chew, Syaiful Rizal Hamid, Rosbadiah Mohd Nawi and Hafizzudin Muzaimi
In this era of high green-awareness, people become more concern on environmental products or services issues. Green or environmental marketing is about the product modification, changes to production process or packaging process and modifying advertising. Therefore, strategic green marketing is very important in order to enhance the corporate green image. In this case study, UMW Toyota Motor Sdn. Bhd. was selected among the automobile industry to investigate the capability of the company in implementing the green marketing strategy to enhance the green corporate image. The research will involve the application of several marketing strategy. A series of interview conducted to collect respondents answer while the data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. As a conclusion, UMW Toyota Motor Sdn. Bhd. has enhanced their green corporate image through the implementation of green marketing strategy in the aspect of product strategy, place strategy, price strategy and promotion strategy to ensure that the objectives on enhancing the green corporate image can be achieved. 

Keywords: Green Marketing Strategy, Green Corporate Image, Green Awareness and Automotive Industry
Do Financial Constraints Expand Lease Financing Capacity?  In Perspective of Malaysian Firms
Mohd Hafiz Bakar 

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between financial constraint factors that can affect the chosen of leasing for the firm in Malaysia. The sample of data consist of 1150 firms including listed firm, unlisted firm and SMEs with the total number of firm-years observation are 8339. This study covers 7 years period from year 2007 until 2014. The dependent variables are lease ratio and debt ratio while the independent variables are the financial constraint determinant such as internal funds, growth, collateral, and size. This study also include control variables such as uniqueness (R&D expenses), tax loss and macroeconomics factor such as based lending rates (BLR). The results indicate that not all financial constraint firms tend to used lease financing compare to debt financing. It depends on what types of financial constraint that the firm faces. For this analysis, the firm that have financial constraint in internal funds, collateral and size tend to used lease compare to debt financing. However, for the firms have less growth opportunities, it is difficult for them to choose either lease or debt financing because of their future survival.

Keywords: leasing, debt finance, financial constraint.
Cointegration and VAR Causality Testing of the Infrastructure - FDI Relationship: A Case of Bangladesh
Shapan Chandra Majumder

This study explores the role of infrastructure availability, particularly with respect to transportation, information and communication technology and energy consumption in determining the attractiveness of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in Bangladesh. The infrastructure of a country not only encourages its local investment to develop its socio-economic condition but also attracts the foreign direct investment. For the empirical analysis this paper uses data for the period 1975-2011 from the World Development Indicators (WDI) (on FDI, per capita energy consumption and GDP) (WDI 2014). The long term relationships between infrastructure and FDI are explored by using cointegration analysis for Bangladesh. The data sets are found to be integrated of the same order. It is also found that they move together in the long run by Johansen Cointegration Test. Using VAR Granger causality/Block exogeneity Wald causality test the study has revealed some interesting causal relationships between foreign direct investment and different infrastructure indicators in Bangladesh. Bi-directional causality is observed only from LNICT to LNFDI in Bangladesh. 

Keywords: FDI, Infrastructure, Johansen’s Co-integration, VAR, Causality
CAMEL Model Analysis of Selected Banks in Bangladesh
Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder and Mohammed Mizanur Rahman

This study attempts mainly to measure the financial performance of the fifteen (15) selected banks in Bangladesh and to identify whether any significant difference exists in the performance of the selected banks for the period 2009-2013. CAMEL Model has been used to examine the financial strength of the selected banks. Composite Rankings, Average, and ANOVA-test by using SPSS are applied here to reach conclusion through the comparative and significant analysis of different parameters of CAMEL. It is found that under the capital adequacy ratio parameter IBBL is the top position, while IFICBL got lowest rank. Under the asset quality parameter, AIBL held the top rank while RBL held the lowest rank. Under management efficiency parameter, it is observed that top rank taken by EBL and lowest rank taken by RBL. In terms of earning quality parameter the capability of EBL got the top rank while TBL was at the lowest position. Under the liquidity parameter DBBL stood on the top position and NCCBL & BAL both are on the lowest position. By considering all of the parameters of CAMEL, it is seen that EBL is the top position assessed by the CAMEL Model compared to other banks under the study because of its strong performance on the Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management and Earnings Ability. EIBBL is the second position, followed by DBBL, AIBL, IBBL and other banks respectively. On the other hand, RBL is the lowest position compared to other banks under the study because of its poor performance on the Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management Efficiency and Earnings Ability. Therefore, RBL should improve the weaknesses of the mentioned ratios of the CAMEL. The ANOVA test signifies that there is a significant difference in the performance of the selected banks in Bangladesh assessed by the CAMEL model. Therefore, the policy maker of the related lowest ranking banks should take necessary steps to improve their weaknesses from the findings under the study.

Keywords: Bank, Financial Performance, and CAMEL Model.
Antecedents of Graduates’ Technopreneurial Behaviors: Co-variance Analysis Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and use of Technology
Hassan Barau Singhry and Azmawani Abd Rahman
Technological skills and access to finance are major indicators of graduate entrepreneurial behaviors. They are also among the most challenging factors for creating new technology-based venture.  Although the integration of technology readiness (TR) and financial literacy (FL) toward technopreneurial behavior (TB) has not been investigated, evidence in the literature supports their relationships. This paper investigates the combined role of TR and FL on technopreneurial intention (TI) and behavior. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and data was collected from 226 graduates. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Analysis of Moment Square (AMOS) graphics were used to analyzed a model with four-stage mediations. The findings show that TI is a full mediator on the relationship between TR (optimism and innovativeness) and TB. Similarly, it is a full mediator on the relationship between FL and TB. However, TI does not mediate the relationship between TR (discomfort and insecurity) and TB. The paper is the first to investigate the mediating effect of TI on the relationship between TR and TB as well as FL and TB among graduate using unified theory of technology acceptance and use (UTAUT 2). This research offers insights toward new technology-based firms’ creation. Equally, it has practical implications for graduate students, institutions of higher learning, formal financial institutions, and policy makers regarding technopreneurial development.

Keywords: Technology entrepreneurship, technology readiness, financial literacy, graduates technopreneurial behavior.
Determinates of Banks’ Profitability: A Study on Islamic Banks in Bangladesh
Md. Mahbub Alam, Intan Maizura Binti Abdul Hamid and S M Sohel Rana

Banks and financial institutions are the heart of the economy of a country. Though Bangladesh is a developing economy, a significant number of financial institutions are in operation now in the country. The present study tried to find out the factors that determine the profitability of Islamic banks in Bangladesh. For the purpose of the study, five Islamic Banks in Bangladesh have been taken as the samples. Only the internal factors of banks’ profitability have been taken into consideration in this study. Profitability has been measured in terms of Return on Equity (ROE) and Return on Asset (ROA).  In model I the findings indicate that asset management has a significant impact on the profitability of Islamic banks in Bangladesh. On the other hand, price earnings ratio and bank size are negatively correlated in terms of Return on equity with the profitability of Islamic banks in Bangladesh. Capital adequacy ratio and operating efficiency are positively correlated with the profitability of Islamic banks. On the other hand in model II it was found that price earnings ratio, operating efficiency and bank size are negatively correlated with return on equity in terms of profitability of Islamic banks in Bangladesh. But asset management and capital adequacy are positively correlated with Return on Equity in terms of profitability of Islamic banks.

Keywords: Islamic bank, Profitability, Return of Assets, Return of Equity and Bangladesh.
An Overview of Consumer Complaining Behavior and the Choice of Complaint Channels in Service Industry
Ataul Karim Patwary and Hamimi Omar

In extensive view of consumers’ complaint behavior research area, choosing specific complaint channels has been considered as a phenomenon. Although, existing literatures explored much on the consumption behavior of products and services, exploring on the choice of complaint channels still in infancy level. Moreover, investigation of channel-choice for complaining is not done extensively. This study provides a brief overview on complaint responses and classifications of consumer complaining behavior (CCB). Consequently, a suitable classification of complaint reactions with regard to complaint channels is discussed in details. The researchers suggested three aspects which are vital for service providers in order to retain existing consumers and seek for new consumers and acquire positive word of mouth; (1) the service providers required to encourage consumers to make complains (2) complaint channels should be easily accessible for consumers and (3) existence of smooth complaint handling process. The development of this extensive literature review, suggestions and conceptualization would be helpful for researchers while they aim for further empirical investigation of consumers complaining behavior and complaint channels.  

Keywords: Consumer Complaining Behavior, Complaint Channels, and Dissatisfaction.
Consideration of Future Consequences as an antecedent of Employee Cyberloafing Behavior among Selected Working Adults in Nigeria
Munir Shehu Mashi and Maruf Gbadebo Salimon

Cyberloafing – non-work-related usage of organization Internet during work time by workers has been a major concern by organizations. Drawing from construal level theory, this paper takes an individual trait-based approach and investigates the impact of personality trait consideration of future consequences (CFC) on cyberloafing. Specifically, it was argued that while general traits, like the “Big Five,” will be significant predictors of employee’s cyberloafing, other personality traits such as CFC, will have additional explanatory power on why employee engaged in Cyberloafing. Survey data was collected online from 188 working adults in Nigeria. SmartPLS SEM 2.0 (M3) was applied to test the hypotheses that comprised both consideration of future consequences immediate (CFC-I) and consideration of future consequences future (CFC-F) on Cyberloafing and consequently bootstrapping was conducted to investigate the standard error of the estimate and t-values. The model tested suggests as expected that consideration of future consequences future (CFC-F) negatively related to cyberloafing and consideration of future consequences immediate (CFC-I) positively predict cyberloafing. This paper adds further theoretical support to the utility of CFC construct, construal level theory and cyberloafing literature. Finally, the study implications for research, managerial practice, future directions and study limitations are discussed. 

Keywords: Cyberloafing, Consideration of future consequences, Personality traits, Counterproductive work behavior, Nigeria
Environmental Accounting and Sustainable Development: An Empirical Review
Mohammad Delwar Hussain, Mohd Suberi Bin Ab. Halim and Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

The appearance of sustainable development as the complex perception of social and environmental issues which must be addressed growing influence in the accounting practices. The main purpose of this paper is to identify how environmental accounting can be able to contribute for ensuring sustainable development. This construing used existing empirical literature especially it has conducted general search by the name of  environmental accounting application in the sustainable development in different online database sources such as Science Direct, Emerald, Springer Link, EBSCO Host, Scopus and Google Scholars, etc. The study summarized from the review findings that proper practices of environmental accounting is a vital issue for sustainable development especially to concentrate on environmental taxes, environmental costs, valuing ecosystem services, costing of carbon dioxide, and cost of water pollution and ensure income sustainability of green products in the way of sustainable development.

Keywords: Environmental Accounting, Green Accounting, Carbon Accounting and Sustainable Development
Budget Deficit and Interest Rate: Evidence from Malaysia 1965-2005
Abu Dzarr Muhammad Rus, Mohamad Helmi Hidthiir, Abul Bashar Bhuiyan and Norsiah Aminudin

This study aims to analyze the impact of the budget deficit on interest rates in Malaysia for 40 years from 1965 to 2005. Towards the achievement of the objective, the study uses Granger causality and co-integration analysis.  The primary results of the study shows that there is no significant short-term relationship between deficit budget and the interest rate. However, by using of co-integration test and error correction model test (ECM), it has found a significant long-term relationship between the budget deficit and interest rates. The present study also recommends for policy guidelines for the selection of national budget strategies to ensure sufficient options to take care of burdened with debt and inflation also a tolerable tax option in Malaysia.

Keywords: Budget Deficit, Interest Rate, Granger Causality, Co-integration and Error Correction Model