Volume 3, No.2 June 2013


Application of Colors to Attract Customers in Market
Zahra Hossein Nezhad and Katayoun Kavehnezhad
Colors are one of the most important factors that influence our perceptions. Their impact is visible in every part of our daily lives, influencing our interactions with other individuals and with inanimate objects. Colors are one of the most important elements in customer and consumer contexts. Similar products are sold often in different colors or with different packaging. This is because the colors have different meanings and perceptions of nations, cultures, ethnicities and religions. Even, each color has a different effect on people feel. So, in order to better introduce any product in any area is required to accurate identification of meanings of colors in the region. This paper focuses on the relationship between color and culture, gender, emotions and costumer behavior. Therefore it is necessary to identify the psychological meaning of each color. Findings of this study suggest the application of colors in the correct position and indicate that managers, graphics’ designer and advertisers can use colors to increase customer attention, and then use it to increase sales.
Keywords:Color, increasing sales, application of color, marketing, attract customers.
Challenges in Maintaining Total Quality Management (TQM) from Internal QMS Audit Perspective: A University Case Study
Nor Juliana Mohd Yusof, Azlan Zakaria and Khairul Anuar Mohd Ali
Quality management system (QMS) certification has been prime agenda for many public institutions of higher education (PIHE) in Malaysia to gain competitive advantage in winning their target customers and stakeholders.  As such, the concept of total quality management (TQM) has become an organizational focus to continuously improving their products and services. However, the implementation of TQM is not an indicator that every single thing is in place. The aim of this paper is to discuss thoroughly and investigate some findings experienced by internal QMS auditors during the internal quality audit process and obtain their perception toward the audit process at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.  The questionnaire, personal (face-to-face), telephone interview and observation were methods chosen to obtain required information from selected respondents. The findings revealed that the most common problem experienced by internal QMS auditors during an internal audit is the failure to follow documented procedures. The study also indicates that low awareness of quality among auditees, unavailability of evidences whenever required, procedures not documented and unco-operative staff are problems highlighted by internal auditors. The findings of this study provide an insight into the implementation of TQM in PIHE and further action for continuous improvement could be taken for the purpose of maintaining the effectiveness of QMS in organization.
Keywords: Total quality management, quality management system, internal quality audit, internal QMS auditor, public institution of higher education.
 <PDF (pp.213-222)>
A Study on Utilization of Information System Sophistication in Small Sized Hotels in Kedah, Malaysia
Ashraf M. A. Riyani and Abdul Manaf Bohari
This paper attempted to investigate the utilization of information system (IS) among small sized hotels which prior on illustrated the main problems that facing these hotels, as integrate and utilize some IS features to keep the hotel move profitable. The study found that small hotels in Kedah, though quite late in technology adoption, as well as IS usage in their daily operation. In fact, utilization of IS in Small Sized Hotels obtained easy way to access the enquire information about the strategy of the small hotels which important to decision making strategy process. Finally, this research suggested to the small hotels to enhancing there IS capabilities of in future. Possible implications were raised regarding IS strategies where it was important to enhancing absorptive capacity of small hotels in Malaysia.
Keywords: Information system utilization, small sized hotels, Kedah, Malaysia.
 <PDF (pp.223-241)>
Poverty Line Income and Implementation of Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia 243-260
Eng Poh Hwa, Syaiful Rizal Hamid and Md Norhayati Tahir
Poverty Line Income (PLI) is an important element to measure poverty and to determine minimum wage rate in Malaysia. The purpose to measure poverty and implement minimum wage policy is to ensure that the basic salary is sufficient to fulfil the basic needs of the low-income workers.  The research defined the poverty line income internationally and in Malaysia and its calculation. The research shows how to relate PLI with minimum wage policy to determine whether the minimum wage rates in Malaysia is reasonable. The method of study implemented in the research is systematic literature review to determine the key scientific contributions of a particular area. Malaysians in Peninsular Malaysia who earns current average salary lower than RM 900 previously will gain from this minimum wage policy, because their current average salary has increased to RM 900 per month. Same to Malaysians in Sabah and Sarawak who can earn higher wages now, RM 800 per month as compared to previously. Therefore, the minimum wage rates determined by the government are reasonable and practical for Malaysians. The implementation of minimum wage policy in Malaysia is still at the early stage. Malaysia government has to proceed with its execution in order to generate a precise conclusion over its practicability.  Therefore, the practicability of minimum wage policy in Malaysia will be researched.
Keywords: Poverty, Poverty Line Income (PLI), poverty measurement, minimum wage, minimum wage policy in Malaysia, low income issue in Malaysia.
 <PDF (pp.243-260)>   
2008 Economics Crisis in Malaysia: Implications on the Economy, Society and Safety Nets
Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain Ahmad Hatta
Malaysia`s experience with the 2008 financial crisis was very different from that of 1998. Notwithstanding the differences, the country was not spared of the negative setbacks. Many sectors of society felt that the impact. The impact of an economic crisis on export and industrial output deteriorated and investments declined. At the national level, income reduction could be due to lower demand for goods and services, rising unemployment, and reduced investment or remittances. Crisis also vividly affected private or public spending on education, health, and even food. The non-existence of comprehensive social safety nets (SSNs) for formal and informal sector is a cause of concern as this may exacerbate economic and social instability in times of economic shocks. This paper remains a review examining Malaysia’s setbacks caused by the 2008 crisis. The focus would be on the financial sectors and the implication the crisis had on society at large. Following the review, the paper suggested that government advance comprehensive social safety nets programs and job placements to improve the living standard of the citizens. The programs should be based on special training and education and implemented with a government- private collaboration.
Keywords: Malaysia, economic crisis, social impacts, social safety nets.
 <PDF (pp.261-276)>  
Management Control Practices and Managerial Commitment in Malaysian Zakat Institutions
Sofiah Md Auzair, Namelfi Amran and Syed Mohd Ghazali Wafa Syed Adwam Wafa
Despite having Islam as the official religion in Malaysia, the Zakat Institutions are governed separately by Islamic Councils of 13 states and a Federal Territory of Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, rather than directly controlled by the Federal Government. Employing different administration enactments, it is expected that there will be variations in the management practices of these institutions. While extensive literature exists on the management of zakat, very few made the attempt to understand the underlying structure of these institutions that form the basis of their management efficiency. This paper aims to understand the governance structure of Malaysian Zakat Institutions through their practice of management control practices (MCP) and the level of managerial commitment. The MCP elements studied include formal controls such as staff’s monitoring and performance evaluation and informal controls such as usrah and tazkirah. A total of 133 questionnaires were received from managers of 10 Zakat Institutions. Findings from the survey indicate usrah and tazkirah rank first and the use of report for evaluation rank second as the most important means of controls. The results also indicate variations in the types of control emphasized by institution in different states. Managers were also found to be highly committed in their work. Interestingly, it was also found that management control practices increase level of staff commitment.
Keywords: Efficiency, Zakat Institutions, Management Control Practices, Organizational Commitment.
 <PDF <pp.277-295)>
Research Issues in Strategic Information Systems Planning: A Literature Review
Hisyam Harun and Mohd Khairuddin Hashim
Strategic information systems planning (SISP) has gained acceptance both as a field of study and good business practice. Increasingly, organizations view SISP as an important management tool that can help them improve their effectiveness, efficiency and productivity. Notwithstanding its importance, research on SISP is limited and neglected. More specifically, the literature review reveals that as a field of study, SISP has received minimal theoretical and empirical research emphasis. Based on the review of the literature, this paper highlights some of the major issues and research areas in SISP that need further investigations.
Keywords: Strategic Information System Planning (SISP), Information System (IS), Information Technology (IT).
 <PDF (pp.297-308)>
Ethical Practices: Examining the Level of Islamic Work Ethic among Middle Level Administrators in Malaysian Public Universities
Abdul Shukor bin Shamsudin and Hamzah bin Dato’Abdul Rahman
The ethical issues have drawn great public attention recently. In the meantime, ethical behavior is truly in line with the Malaysian Government policy outlines under the second thrust of the Ninth Malaysia Plan, to promote a community of culture and strong moral values. The Government has taken several proactive approaches such as strengthening the institutions and put in place many programs with the main purpose to uphold integrity in the Malaysian society. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to examine the level of Islamic work ethic among middle level administrators in Malaysian Public Universities. A total of 500 middle level administrators working in 20 Malaysian Public Universities were invited to take part in this survey. A total of 237 usable questionnaires was obtained. The instrument used was adapted from Ali (1988, 1992). The results suggested that the score of Islamic work ethic was at a great level of importance among middle level administrators in Malaysian public universities.
Keywords: Ethical practices, Islamic work ethic, middle level administrator, public university.
Export-Led Growth Theory: Malaysian Timber Industry
Noor Aini Zakaria, Hazmira Merous, Hafizah Abdul Rahim, and Adibah Hussin
Malaysia is one of the world’s largest exporters of tropical timber and timber products with export destinations to 160 countries. In 2008, the timber industry was the fifth largest contributor with contribution of 3.3 percent to total export earnings of Malaysia. Among commodities, timber industry shared about 20.3 percent of the export earnings. The major exports of primary products are saw logs, sawn timber, fibre board and plywood. Secondary processed wood products are furniture, builders’ joinery and carpentry together with mouldings. Given the contribution of Malaysian timber sector to Malaysian economy, this study sets to assess the experience of timber industry in Malaysia to provide support for export led growth (ELG) hypothesis. This study employs yearly data of real GDP and real export of timber products for the period 1979-2008 using Granger Causality approach. Cointegration test using Johansen approach evidenced the existence of long-run relationship between export and GDP of timber products. Furthermore, Granger causality proves that export led growth for Malaysian timber industry.
Keywords: Timber export, export-led growth, Granger causality, Malaysia.
Correlation between Debt Financing and Value Maximization in Islamic Banks: A Case Study on the Islamic Banks of Bangladesh
Md. Ismail Hossain, Md. Ferdausur Rahman, Md Shaheb Ali and Abdullah Lin
The study has been analyzed that what is the relation between the debt financing and value maximization of Islamic banking. To answer this question this study goes through the annual report of the financial year 2008-2009 and financial year 2009-2010 of the all seven Islamic banks of Bangladesh. The study has shown that the relation between debts financing to value maximization is positively correlated except for net income, EPS and ROA. For disagreement with the positive relationship is that some Islamic banks recently have converted from conventional banking to Islamic banking.
Keywords: Debt financing, value maximization, Islamic banking, Profit Loss Sharing (PLS).