Volume 2, No.3 October 2012


Managing Chemical Wrappers and Chemical Containers by the Wholesale and Retail Traders Vis-à-vis the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and the Environmental Quality Act 1974
Azuddin Bahari, Hanum Hassan and Faridah Wahab
In the services sector, one prospective area for the contribution and development of SMEs is “Distributive trade” which focus on retail, wholesale, restaurants, motor vehicle distribution, motor vehicle trade and repair services, and franchising. One business undertaken by wholesale and retail trading is distributing and supplying of chemicals to the consumers. Chemical products in particular are move to consumers and to other businesses through the distribution channels. Poorly chosen channels of distribution through which goods and services flow can cause a superior product or service to be out of the market. Workers who are employed in the wholesale or retail industry at the chemical workplaces are required to manage, handle and make delivery of chemicals to client’s base on their demand. The outcomes from the process of repacking are unwanted or throw away chemical wrappers and unwanted or throw away chemical containers. This throw away chemical wrappers and chemical containers fall under the category of Scheduled Waste (SW) that is “SW 409 - Disposed Containers, Bags or Equipment Contaminated with Chemicals, Pesticides, Mineral Oil or Scheduled Wastes.” Some of the health effects due of exposure of this throw away chemical wrappers and chemical containers include skin irritation, occupational asthma, systemic chemical poisoning, chemical burns from corrosives, cancer etcetera. Since these throw away chemical wrappers and chemical containers are classified as schedule waste, hence, these wastes have to be disposed of in accordance with the Environmental Quality Act 1974 with its subsidiary legislation “Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005.”
Keywords: Retail, wholesale, scheduled waste, chemical wrappers, chemical containers.
Communications and Trust Is a Key Factor to Success in Virtual Teams Collaborations
Bibi Noraini Mohd Yusuf
Communication and trust plays an important role in virtual team working nowadays. It is because virtual team’s members come from different culture around the world. We know that, different cultures implant different behavior, value and norms. This article will study about the importance of communication and trust element in virtual team working. This article will divided into two parts which are communication and trust in virtual teams. Trust in virtual teams will focus on three type includes impersonal, abstract trust relationships and personal trust relationships. Swift trust and how to build it is also discussed to provide information about virtual teams to promote better understanding. This article provides information for organizations or manager that chooses virtual teams in undertaking their international business or assignment.
Keywords:Cross culture management, trust, virtual team, swift trust.
Corporate Social Responsibility: An Islamic Perspective
Kazi Masuma Khatun and Hala Alautiyat
This paper addresses the issue of corporate social responsibility from Islamic perspectives and presents the principles, framework, dimensions and initiatives that govern Islamic corporations to be socially responsible. The objective of this paper is to provide a reference for Muslim managers at corporate governance and other managerial levels that reminds them with the core values of Islamic businesses, provides an Islamic framework of CSR to help them assess their CSR practices from an Islamic perspectives and advises them on how to maximize the benefits of their contributions to achieve the welfare of the whole Ummah (Islamic community).
Examining Relationship between Working Capital Changes and Fixed Assets with Assets Return: Iranian Scenario
Mahdi Salehi
The present research has investigated the relationship between working capital changes and fixed assets with asset return of listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange. In this research, in addition to working capital and fixed assets, the relationship between changes these variables and assets return has also been investigated. Statistical community of the study covers listed companies in Tehran Stock exchange during 2005-2010. Pearson correlation, Regression test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test have been used in determining kind of relationship between dependent and independent variables, hypotheses test and evaluating normality of data respectively. The outcomes of the study suggest that there is a significant relationship between working capital changes and fixed assets with assets return statistically.
Keywords: Working capital, fixed assets, assets return, Tehran Stock Exchange.
Geopolitics of Technology and the Hydrocarbon Status Quo
Anis H. Bajrektarevic
Why does the Kyoto mechanism fail again? Is oil more than energy? Is this a construct that architectures the world currently known to and permitted for us?“No one governs innocently” – de Beauvoir noted in her 1947’s The Ethics of Ambiguity… The Editorial Board member, Prof. Bajrektarevic opens his piece by reflecting upon the recent revolts that have swept through the Middle East and North Africa. He fears little democratic headway will be made in the region in the face of the much larger geopolitical imperative to maintain the “hydrocarbon status quo” and to it related confrontational nostalgia. For their own very specific reasons, which author delineates herein, each of the world’s major military and economic powers has little motivation to alter its present energy mix by embracing technological, political and socio-economic alternatives to fossil-fuels. The one possible exception is Japan, a country with scant indigenous hydrocarbon resources and a growing number of energy-related problems. This fact – for the author – indicates Asia and its Far East as a probable zone of thenew/Green-tech excellence in the decade to come.
Keywords: democracy, freedom, sovereignty and territorial integrity, geopolitics, ideology, Asia
The Roles of Middle Managers in the Strategic Implementation: A Proposed Model for Islamic Banking in Indonesia
Dudi Permana, Hasliza Abdul Halim and Ishak Ismail
Islamic Banking in Indonesia shows a progressive performance in improving the economy. However, there are still challenges to be solved in particular to small market share and lack of competency in human resources in executing the concept of Islamic Banking. Numerous research highlight that challenges occur not because of insufficient strategy formulation but due to inadequate implementation. In this manner the roles of middle management is crucial in implementing the strategy. Thus, the paper aims at identifying the strategic roles of middle management in implementing the strategic effectiveness of Islamic Banking in Indonesia. In this article, we provide a critical review on the impediments faced by the operations of Islamic Banks in Indonesia pertaining to the strategic roles of the middle managers. This study adds to present literature by elaborating conceptually on the linkages between different roles of middle managers and the effectiveness of strategic implementation in Indonesia’s Islamic Banking
Keywords: Middle managers’ role, strategic implementation, Islamic banking.
Synergistic Roles of Psychological and Organisational Factors in Cultivating Intrapreneurship to Enhance Performance
Noor Hazlina Ahmad, Aizzat Nasurdin and Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal
The aim of this paper is to investigate the psychological and organisational factors that can be crafted to promote intrapreneurial behaviour among Malaysian workforce which could subsequently enhance their overall performance. This study specifically examines the effects of psychological factors (i.e., locus of control, propensity to take risk, and need for achievement as well as the organisational factors (i.e., management support, work discretion, reward and reinforcement, organisational boundaries and time availability) on intrapreneurial behaviour. Following that, the effect of intrapreneurial behaviour on job performance is also tested. Of 500 questionnaires distributed, 263 were found usable. Multiple regression is utilised to test the hypothesized relationship. The findings unearthed that all paths are significant except for the effect of time availability on intrapreneurial behaviour. Overall, this study offers valuable insights into the psychological factors as well as factors within an organisation that could instigate intrapreneurial culture among Malaysian workforce.
Keywords: Intrapreneurship, job performance, psychological factors, organisational factors.
Testing the Convergence Theory in the Malaysian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturing Sector
Hazril Izwar Ibrahim
The convergence theory proposed that due to globalization certain practices will be adopted and implemented by firms worldwide regardless of their location. The study investigates the proposition that strategic HRM practices adopted by the manufacturing firms in Malaysia will bear similarities to those implemented by the multinational corporations (MNCs). The results indicated support for the convergence theory, revealing similarities in the strategic HRM practices adopted despite the different country of origins of the firms.
Keywords: Convergence theory, strategic HRM practices, manufacturing firms.
The Impact of Exchange Rate on Malaysia Wood Export
Noor Aini Zakaria, Hafizah Abdul Rahim and Noor Hazmira Merous
Malaysia has been a major wood producer and exporter since 1970s. The Malaysian wood industry has grown from being a producer and exporter of logs to primary and higher value-added products such as sawntimber, plywood, veneer, and mouldings. The export contribution of wood also plays a significant development for the Malaysian export sector. For Malaysian wood export, being one of the sector that influenced by the exchange rate volatility, the study on the impact of exchange rate on export is considered important. This study uses Granger causality approach to analyze the relationship between exchange rate and wood export. Chow test is used to examine the structural change of exchange rate regime; pegged exchange rate regime and managed float exchange rate. The quarterly data of exchange rate and wood export from 1997-2008 were employed for this study. The result indicated that there is a structural break in the third quarter of 2005 to the fourth quarter of 2008 which real exchange rate is significant and positively correlated to timber export under managed floating exchange rate regime. Thus, understanding the relationship between exchange rate and timber export performance is important for Malaysia to further develop the direction of the industry.
Keywords: Exchange rate, timber export, international trade, cointegration, granger-causality and chow-test.
Prospek Ekonomi Dalam Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Di Perlis: Ke Arah Merealisasikan Perlis Maju 2015
Mohd Mizan Aslam
Pengurusan sisa pepejal adalah satu isu besar dalam dunia moden hari ini. Malaysia pernah mempunyai lebih dari 300 buah pusat pelupusan sisa pepejal pada masa lalu. Akan tetapi, jumlahnya telah berkurangan kepada 160 dan 3 daripadanya terletak di negeri Perlis. Berdasarkan kepada bilangan tan metrik sampah yang dicatatkan di tapak perlupusan Padang Siding dengan jumlah penduduk Perlis, pastinya keadaan ini memerlukan kepada satu kajian untuk melihat pola pembuangan dan tahap kesedaran yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Perlis serta bagaimana ianya mampu menjana pendapatan kepada Perlis. Pelbagai sumber data, samaada melalui lawatan tapak, kajian rintis mahupun sumber sekondari adalah penyumbang utama dalam kajian ini. Dapatannya memperlihatkan tahap pengurusan yang dimiliki oleh Perlis serta ruang-ruang penambahbaikan yang boleh dipacu oleh negeri ini terutamanya dalam mempersediakan Perlis kearah negeri maju pada tahun 2015 nanti.