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1.

The Relationship of Life Insurance Ownership with Demographic and Psychographic Factors: A Preliminary Study in Alor Setar, Kedah
Tan Suang Sinand and Lim Chee Chee

ABSTRACT
The life insurance market in Malaysia still remains widely untapped as compared to other countries that have much higher market penetration rates. Therefore this study aims to examine the relationship of life insurance ownership with demographic and psychographic factors, and to identify which of them have a more important relationship with life insurance ownership. A preliminary field work has been carried out in early February to mid-March 2015 using a non-probability convenience sampling technique around Alor Setar, Kedah in Malaysia. A total of 108 respondents participated in this study. Binary logistic regression has been used for data analysis. The major findings show that demographic factors can better explain life insurance ownership among the respondents in Alor Setar relative to psychographic factors. Two demographic factors, namely ethnicity and income, are found to be the predominant factors of life insurance ownership. Life insurance policyholders in Alor Setar tend to be Chinese and those at higher income level. Meanwhile, the psychographic factor of risk attitudes only has a weak negative relationship with life insurance ownership. Risk attitudes are only found to have a significant relationship with life insurance ownership when demographic factors are excluded. Non-policyholders in Alor Setar tend to be individuals who are very likely to engage in risky behaviours or activities. They are risk takers, unlike risk adverse individuals who are more likely to own life insurance for assured protection against personal risks of premature death.

Keywords:Binary logistic regression, ethnicity, demographic factor, income, life insurance, psychographic factor, risk attitude.
PDF - [117-134]]

2.

The Study of the Relationship between Auditors' Opinion and Earnings Management in the Listed Corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange
S. Hasan Salehnezhad, Vahid Amin and Babak Salehi Faresani

ABSTRACT
Audit report is the final result of audit process of a corporation and it is considered as the credit of financial statements and quality of financial reporting. The purpose of this study is evaluating the effect of earnings management on the auditors' opinion in the listed corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange. The listed corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange are local area of research and after doing the systematic removal method, 90 corporations were selected as the samples of the study. The study was conducted from 2010 to 2015. Combined data regression (Logistic regression) was used in the study. Besides that, Hosmer and Lemeshow statistics and Z-statistics were used to evaluate the research hypotheses. Results and findings of the study show that there is a positive relationship between the auditors' qualified opinion and earnings management. Also, results and findings show that there is a positive relationship between the qualified opinion related to the auditor’s goingconcern and earnings management.

Keywords: Earnings management, qualified audit opinion, Going-concern.
PDF – [135-150]

3.

Migrant Workers under the Domestic Law and International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention in Perspective of Malaysia
Mohammed Rahel and Tasnuva Mahbub Chowdhury

ABSTRACT
Malaysia has profited extraordinarily from the employment of migrant workers in a few financially imperative areas. Amid the most recent two decades, these workers have given the labour that has fuelled the nation's development as an upper-centre wage nation. However, guaranteeing that migrant workers get reasonable treatment keeps on demonstrating troublesome, with reports of mishandling in a few major industries. In light of late improvements in international trade and more scrutiny examination of worldwide supply chains, there has been expanded weight from the global group to order approach and institutional changes that will better ensure the rights of migrants. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has been giving specialized help to the government and social accomplices to reinforce labour migration administration in Malaysia. Key territories of work have included contributing inputs to draft enactment and reciprocal agreements, enhancing the accumulation of labour migration statistics. The insurance of workers employed in a nation other than their nation of root has dependably had a critical place among the exercises of the ILO, since more than whatever other specialists they are at risk to misuse, especially on the off chance that they are in an unpredictable circumstance and are casualties of the trafficking of people. This paper concentrates on the migrant worker, assurance of whether Domestic Law or ILO Convention and the current insurance that is accessible in Malaysia's employment laws.

Keywords:Domestic Law, ILO Convention, Malaysia, Migrant Workers.
PDF - [151-166]

4.

Judicialization of Politics and Vice Versa: The Transformation of Constitutional Discourse in Bangladesh
Md. Safiullah

ABSTRACT
Transformation of constitutional discourse facilitated the judicialization of politics which is a political weapon to sustain the power of ruling party in shadow of legality in different countries at present. The way of using this weapon is the judicial review power of higher court. It is a great weapon in the hands of judges of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh that have been frequently asked to resolve various public issues i.e. expression and religious liberties, equal rights, privacy, freedoms, public policies pertaining to criminal justice, property, trade and commerce, education, immigration, labour, and environmental protection etc. In recent years, its application was expended in political controversies even in some settled issues that can be treated as “megapolitics”. Moreover, courts have played a significant role in policy making to govern the state by applying judicial review. Nowadays, the courts frequently interfere in policy-making processes either by its own motion or on the application of ruling parties. This is the question whether it is a blessing or alarming to uphold the constitutional spirit since the judiciary is called the guardian of constitution. This article explores the recent trends of judicialization of politics in Bangladesh. It also examines and illustrates the various forms and manifestations of the judicialization of mega-politics through recent examples drawn from leading case references. Finally this article seeks to explore the impact of judicialization of politics in a democratic country like Bangladesh.

Keywords:Judicialization of Politics, Judicial Review, Mega-politics and Constitutional Discourse
PDF - [167-180]

5.

Energy Consumption in Various Sectors, Output and Carbon Dioxide Emission in Malaysia
Mohd Shahidan Shaari, Nor Azam Abdul Razakand and Bakti Hasan Basri

ABSTRACT
The issue on the linkage among energy consumption, output and environmental degradation has come to the fore and merited attention from policy makers. The importance of energy consumption in generating economic activities remains indisputable. However, the use of energy is claimed to be detrimental to the environment. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the linkage among energy consumption in several sectors, sectorial output and carbon dioxide emission in Malaysia. Data from 1990 to 2014 were analysed using the panel data analysis. Results show that a rise in output can reduce environmental degradation in Malaysia. However, the use of energy can degrade environmental quality. The inevitable and substantial use of energy types in the  industrial and transportation sectors can trigger environmental woes. Therefore, these findings are vital to shed light on the issue and help policy makers formulate policies.

Keywords:Energy, Output, Carbon Dioxide Emission
PDF - [181 - 188]

6.

The Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students in Malaysia
Khadeeja Abdul Salam Taha, Sayang Nurshahrizleen Ramlan and Idris Mohd Noor

ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this paper is to corroborate the factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Malaysia constructed on empirical reviews. In this study, general searches were conducted to accumulate empirical literatures by the name of Entrepreneurship Development, Entrepreneurship Education and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer Link, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. This study found that innovation, entrepreneurship training & education, family background, government support program, social entrepreneurship, women participation, individual entrepreneurial characteristics, participation of micro,small & medium enterprises, youth empowerment, collaboration of governmentuniversity- industry is the key tool for entrepreneurship development. Stimulating employment will eventually help alleviating poverty. This study also found that there is a strong relation among students entrepreneurial attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control. Moreover, the entrepreneurship teaching methodology has moderating effects on every relationship.

Keywords:Entrepreneurship Development, Entrepreneurship Education and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
PDF - [189 - 202]

7.

Islamic Work Ethic and Public Sector Innovation:Entrepreneurial Orientation as a Moderator
Muliati Usman1 and Norsiah Mat

ABSTRACT
Constantly changing global environment has forced public sector to meet all the diverse demands of society.  public sector should improve the quality of services provided to society and this could be achieved through innovation. In this case, Islamic work ethic which is value from Al-Qur’an and Hadith is seem as appropriate to boost and motivate civil servants in carrying out their duties diligently and innovatively. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial orientation that is characterized by innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking character can acts as a catalyst for innovation that will support the implementation of Islamic work ethic at workplace. Therefore, this conceptual paper attempts to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation as a moderator on the relationship between Islamic work ethic and innovation in the public sector.

Keywords:Islamic work ethic, entrepreneurial orientation, public sector innovation.

PDF - [203 - 212]

8.

Entrepreneurial Intention among Bangladeshi Tourism Students
Chhanda Biswas

ABSTRACT
This study aims to investigate entrepreneurial intention among the Bangladeshi tourism students. This study is quantitative in nature and questionnaire survey method is used to obtain the information for this study. This study found that Bangladeshi tourism students are not interested in entrepreneurship. Most of the participants want to choose their future career as an employee in any company or organization. They are not eager to accept risk or challenges. Although maximum respondents want to implement their tasks innovatively, they will not choose their career as an entrepreneur. Since this study is intention and perception based, it is possible that future research may generate different result in relation with the change in student intention about entrepreneurship. The study will be useful to the researchers who want to know the tourism student intention on entrepreneurship. Further research should be preceded by providing some suggestions and guidelines to motivate Bangladeshi tourism students to choose the entrepreneurial as their career and this will be very beneficial for the development of the tourism sector in Bangladesh. The findings of this study will be beneficial for practitioners who are interested in understanding tourism student’s entrepreneurial intention. The development of conceptual framework in this study will enrich the literature regarding the construct of tourism student intention about entrepreneurship. This study will be useful in providing an insight of entrepreneur and entrepreneurship as well as some factors of entrepreneurship such risk-taking propensity, innovativeness, as well as education and training.


Keywords: Entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intention, tourism students.
PDF - [213-226]